Hydrology  
 
 

Natural Geography of Pakistan

5- Hydrology
5-1- Rivers

The Indus River is the lifeline of Pakistan. Without the Indus and its tributaries, the land would have turned into a barren desert long ago. The Indus originates in Tibet from the glacial streams of the Himalayas and enters Pakistan in the northeast. It runs generally southwestward the entire length of Pakistan, about 2,900 km (1,800 mi), and empties into the Arabian Sea. The Indus and its tributaries provide water to two-thirds of Pakistan. The principal tributaries of the Indus are the Sutlej, Beas, Chenab, Ravi, and Jhelum rivers. In southwestern Punjab Province these rivers merge to form the Panjnad (“Five Rivers”), which then merges with the Indus to form a mighty river. As the Indus approaches the Arabian Sea, it spreads out to form a delta. Much of the delta is marshy and swampy. It includes 225,000 hectares (556,000 acres) of mangrove forests and swamps. To the west of the delta is the seaport of Karāchi; to the east the delta fans into the salt marshes known as the Rann of Kutch.



Map showing river Indus and its tributaries (http://www.waterinfo.net.pk)


List of Pakistan Rivers
Chenab River

The Chenab River (Punjabi: ਚਨਾਬ, IAST: canāb, Urdu: چناب ‎, Hindi: चनाब, literally: 'Moon(Chen) River(ab)') is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahul and Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh, India. In its upper reaches it is also known as the Chandrabhaga. It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu, and then by the Ravi River. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif to form the Panjnad ('Five Rivers' the fifth being Beas which joins Satluj near Ferozepur, India), Satluj then joins the Indus at Mithankot. The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.
The river was known to Indians in Vedic period as Ashkini (Sanskrit: अश्किनि) or Iskmati and as Acesines to the Ancient Greeks. In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus (present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River).
The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab, as, say the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic and the legend of Sohni Mahiwal. This river has been in the news off late due to the steps taken by Indian government to build a number of hydropower dams along its length ( in India) most notably being Baglihar hydel power project( expected time of completion 2008). These planned projects on Chenab have been hotly contested by Pakistan which believes that India is breaking the terms and clauses of Indus water treaty by storing and channelising the waters of this river, a claim totally rejected by Indian government.
Sutlej
Sutlej River (Sanskrit: सुटुद्रि IAST: Suṭudri, Punjabi: ਸਤਲੁਜ, Urdu: ستلج ‎, also known as Satluj), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through Indian Punjab in northern India. Its source is in Tibet near Mount Kailash and its terminus in Pakistani Punjab. It is the easternmost afluent of the Punjab, and it receives the Beas River in the state of Punjab, India and continues into Pakistan to join the Chenab River to form the Panjnad River, which further down its course joins the Indus River at Mithankot.
The Sutlej was known as Shatadru or Suṭudri to Indians in Vedic period and Zaradros or Hesidros to the Greeks, and Sydrus to the Romans.
The waters of the river are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan. At present, most of its water is diverted to irrigation canals and used up in India. The Bhakra-Nangal Dam is a huge multipurpose dam on the river.
There is substantial evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 B.C. the Sutlej was once an important tributary of the Sarasvati River, instead of the Indus River. It is believed that tectonic activity created elevation changes that redirected the Sutlej from southeast to southwest. Once flowing in its new westward direction, the river eventually joined the Beas river. As a result, the mighty Sarasvati River began to dry up, causing the desertification of Cholistan and Sindh, as well as the abandonment of numerous ancient human settlements along its banks.
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River (Punjabi: Shahmukhi: دریاۓ جہلم , Gurmukhi: ਜੇਹਲਮ) is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Indus River.
Kabul River
Kabul River or Kabal River (Persian: دریای کابل ) is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. It is the main river in the eastern part of Afghanistan. It flows 700 km before joining the Indus River near Attock . It passes through the cities of Kabul, Chaharbagh, Jalalabad, and (flowing into Pakistan some 30 km north of the Khyber Pass) Nowshera. The major tributaries of the Kabul River are the Logar, Panjshir, Kunar and Alingar rivers.
The Kabul river itself is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows. Its largest tributary is the Kunar, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacier in Chitral, Pakistan and once it flows south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name.
This river is attested in the Rig Veda, the earliest scripture of Hinduism, under the name Kubhā (many of the rivers of Afghanistan are mantioned in the Rig Veda). The Sanskrit word later changed to Kābul.
Swat River
Swat River (Urdu: دریائے سوات ) flows from Hindukush Mountains through Kalam valley and merges into Kabul River in peshawer valley Sarhad, Pakistan.Swat River irrigates vast area of Swat District and contributes to fishing industry of the region. Saidu Group's of teaching hospitals also located at the banks of Swat River.Malamjaba ski resort is about 10 miles away from the river. Ayub Bridge is one of the attractions for visitors. The scenery attracts many tourists from all over Pakistan during the summer.
Kunar River
The Kunar River ( Kunar Rud ) is about 480 km long, located in eastern Afghanistan and north-western Pakistan. The Kunar river system is fed from melting glaciers and snow of the Hindu Kush mountains. The Lutkho River joins the Mastuj River just norrth of the important regional centre of Chitral in Pakistan and is then called the Chitral River, before flowing south into the upper Kunar Valley in Afghanistan, where it is referred to as the Kunar River. The Kunar River empties into the Kabul River just to the east of the city of Jalalabad in Afghanistan. The combined rivers then flow eastwards into Pakistan, joining the Indus River at the city of Attock.
Panjnad River
Panjnad River (Urdu: پنجند ) (panj = five, nadi = river) is a river in Punjab, Pakistan. Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence of the five rivers of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad near Uch Sharif. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sind provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.Beyond the confluence of Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus river was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including Indus river, which is believed to be in ealrlier times the Saraswati/Ghaggar/Hakra river which eventually dried and became a seasonal river due to seismic shifts in the glacial region of Himachal Pardesh where it originated and later on Kabul river and the five rivers of Punjab.
Shyok River
The Shyok River is a river flowing through Ladakh and the disputed Northern Areas of Pakistan (Ghangche District). Shyok river (a tributary of the Indus) originates from the Rimo glacier, one of the tounges of Siachin glacier and and becomes very wide at the confluence with the Nubra river (a tributary of Shyok, originating from Siachin Glacier). The alignment of the Shyok river is very unusual, originating from the Rimo glacier it flows in a SE direction and at joining the Pangong range it takes a NW turn and flows parallel to its previous path. The Shyok flowing in a wide valley suddenly enters a narrow gorge after Chalunka and then joins the Indus at Skardu (Pakistan). The Nubra river originating from the Siachin glacier also behaves like the Shyok, before Tirit the SE flowing river takes a NW turn on meeting the river Shyok. The similarity in the courses of these two important rivers probably indicates a series of palaeo fault lines trending NW-SE in delimiting the upper courses of the rivers. The importance of the Indus and the Shyok rivers is in the deposition of a huge thickness of Quaternary sediments a treasure trove for geology researchers.
Hunza River
Hunza River (Urdu:دریائے ہنزہ ) is the principal river of Hunza, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is formed by the confluence of the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas (gorges) which are fed by glaciers. It is joined by the Gilgit River and the Naltar River before it flows into the Indus River.
The river cuts through the Karakoram range, flowing from north to south. The Karakoram Highway crosses the Hunza River near Hunza and Nagar valleys.
Gomal River
Gomal River (Urdu: دریائے گومل ) is a river in Afghanistan and Pakistan, with its headwaters in the south-east of Ghazni. The headwater springs of the Gomal's main leg come together close to the fort of Babakarkol in Katawaz, a district inhabited primarily by Kharoti and Suleiman Khel Pashtuns. The Gomal's chief tributary is the Zhob River. Within Pakistan, Gomal river surrounds South Waziristan agency, forms the boundary between the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan. The river passes then through the Damaan plain in Kulachi Tehsil and later on through Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil and then finally falls in river Indus.
Gilgit River
Gilgit River (Urdu: دریائے گلگت ) is a tributary of the Indus River, and flows past the town of Gilgit. It is located in the Northern Areas of Kashmir, Pakistan.
Kurram River
The Kurrum River (Urdu: دریائے کرم ) flows in the Kurrum Valley, stretching across the Afghan-Pakistani border west to east (crosses from the Paktia Province of Afghanistan into the Kohat border region of Pakistan) at , about 150 km west-to-south-west of the Khyber Pass.
Lyari River
Lyari River (Urdu:دریائے لیاری ) is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Lyari River passes through the city of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea. Lyari river is one of the two rivers passing through through Karachi and the other is Malir River.
Malir River
Malir River (Urdu:دریائے ملير ) is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Malir River passes through the city of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea. Malir river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other is Lyari River.it has two other little river help one is Thadho and other is Sukhan.In a rainy season this river flow with lot of water and millions of gallons of water waste in Arabian Sea. If the government becomes searious to this matter and construct a dam on this river, it will benefit the whole of Karachi a great deal.
Hub River
Hub River (Urdu: دریائے حب ) is located in Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms the provincial boundary between Sindh and Balochistan, west of Karachi. Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River in the arid plains north of Karachi. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in the Lasbella district of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water. The Mahseer (Tor putitora), an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River, grows up to 2m in length and provides for excellent angling.It is in pakistan.
Tochi River
Tochi river (Urdu: دریائے توچی ) is located in North Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan. Tochi river flows eastward, in North Waziristan, to join the Kurram River and the Indus. It surrounds Waziristan in the North waziristan in the North while the Gomal River river surrounds South Waziristan.
Indus River Delta
The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Sindh. The delta covers an area of about 16,000 square miles (41,440 km²), and is approximately 130 miles across where it meets the sea. Unlike many other deltas, the Indus River Delta consists of clay and other infertile soils, and is very swampy. The delta receives between 10 and 20 inches of rainfall in a normal year. Pakistan's fifth largest city, Hyderabad, lies about 130 miles north of the mouths of the Indus. Towns are found throughout the delta, but there are no large cities on the delta south of Hyderabad. Karachi, Pakistan's largest city, lies west of the delta on the coast of the Arabian Sea.Average temperatures for the delta region in July range from 70 - 85 °F, and 50 - 70 °F in January. The Indus River Delta is an important region for migrating water birds, and is an area rich in freshwater fauna. Fish found in the delta include the Hilsa, Indus baril, Indus garua (a catfish), the giant snakehead, golden mahaseer and the Rita catfish.
Swaan River
The Swaan River (Urdu: دریائے سوان ) is the most important stream of the Pothohar region of Pakistan. It drains much of the water of Pothohar. It starts near a small village Bun in the foothills of Patriata and Murree. It provides water to Simlbee Dam, which is reservoir of water for Islamabad. Near Pharwala Fort it cuts through a high mountain range and that is a wonderful phenomenon of nature. The place is called Swan Cut. No stream can cut such a high mountain. It proves the Swaan was there before the formation of this range. And when the mountain rose through millions of years, the stream continued its path by cutting the rising mountain. Ling stream, following a relatively long course though Lehtrar and Kahuta falls in the Swaan near Sihala.
Islamabad Highway crosses this stream near Sihala where famous bridge Cock Pull is constructed over it. Another famous, Lai stream joins this stream near Swaan Camp. After walking a tortuous path and creating a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh where it falls into the Indus River. This relatively small stream is more than 250 kilometers long. Due to its mountainous course and shallow bed, it is hardly used for irrigation purposes. For grinding wheat, you can find ancient types of flour mills near Chakian.Fishing is not possible in this stream as a profession. Rohu is the main species of fish in this stream.
Hungol River
Hungol River or Hingol River (Urdu: دریائے ہنگول ) is located in Makran, Balochistan, Pakistan. The Hungol valley has fantastic scenery of towering cliffs, pinnacles and buttresses, the river winding between. Some 350 miles in length, the Hungol is Balochistan's longest river. Unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains, the Hungol always has flowing water in it. The water is crystal–clear, reflecting the incredible blue of the sky. It makes for picture–postcard scenery. Hungol river and valley are located in Hungol National Park.
Neelum River
Neelum (Urdu: دریائے نیلم ) is a river in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
Hispar River
The Hispar River forms from the melt water of the Hispar Glacier - a 49 kilometer-long glacier in the Northern Areas of Pakistan s Karakoram Mountains. The Hispar Glacier and river both flow northwest, passing through Hispar, Hopar and Nagar (Nagir) villages until the confluence with the Hunza River in the Hunza Valley. Road conditions are spectacular at best, treacherous at worst. In August 2006, a bridge below Hispar village was condemned, and the Hunza River washed the road away at the confluence, eliminating all vehicular access to the entire valley for some months.
Rupal River
Rupal River rises from the melt water of Rupal Glacier in the south of the Nanga Parbat peak and flows northeast through the Rupal Valley and Tarashing.
Kundar River
Kundar River is located in Balochistan, Pakistan. The meltwater from the Sulaiman Mountains forms Kundar River and it flows through Balochistan and drains into Gomal River. The two principal drainage channels of the Zhob district are the Zhob River Zhob River and the Kundar River, both flow into the Gomal River. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about 400 kilometers. The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length. The other subsidiary rivers or streams are the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, Surab, etc.
Zhob River
Zhob River (Urdu: دریائے ژوب ) is located in Balochistan, Pakistan. The meltwater from the Sulaiman Mountains forms Zhob Rivers and it flows through Balochistan and drains into Gomal River. Zhob city is located on banks of Zhob river. The two principal drainage channels of the Zhob district are the Zhob River and the Kundar River, both flow into the Gomal River. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about 400 kilometers. The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length. The other subsidiary rivers or streams are the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, Surab, etc.
Shigar River
Shigar River (Urdu: دریائے شگر ) is located in Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan. The Shigar River is formed from the melt water of the Baltoro Glacier and Biafo Glacier. The river is tributary to Indus River and meets the Indus in Skard Skardu valley.
Gambila River
Gambila River (Urdu: دریائے گمبیلا ) river, also called the Tochi River, is located in Bannu District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. It s source are the hills six miles south of the Sufed Koh, the source of the Kurram River, which it runs parallel too and finally joins. The Gambila is an important river for the inhabitants of the Dawar valley, as it serves to irragate a large area of land that it runs through. Particularly that belonging to the Bakkakhel Wazirs, and Miri and Barakzai Bannuchis.
Kunhar River
Kunhar River (Urdu: دریائے کنہار ) is located in North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. A main source of the river is Lulusar lake, nearly 48km from Naran Valley. Glaciers of Malka Parbat and Makra Peak and the waters of Saiful Muluk feed the river. The Kunhar flows through the entire Kaghan Valley through Jalkhand, Naran, Kaghan, Jared, Paras and Balakot, and joins the Jhelum River.
Dasht River
Dasht River (Urdu: دریائے دشت ) is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Mirani Dam is being built on Dasht river to provide drinking water to Gwadar city.
Dashtiari River
Dashtiari River (Urdu: دریائے دشتیاری ) is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Soan River
Soan River (Urdu: سون ) is a river in Punjab, Pakistan. The oldest evidence of human life (8,000 to 6,000 years ago) in Pakistan was found in the Soan River valley of Pothohar Plateau region of Punjab. This human activity, called Soan Culture, discovered in the form of pebble tools scattered long the river. In Peshawar Valley of ancient Gandhara, there is evidence of existence of Stone Age men found at Sanghao near Mardan. Stone tools and burnt bones dated 7,000 years were found near caves. Cave dwellers of middle Stone Age used quartz flakes tools.
Peche River
Peche river is located in Afghanistan. Peche river system is fed from glaciers and snow. It includes the Kunar River, which rises in Nuristan province of Afghanistan, and the main Kunar River, which rises in the eastern Pamir Mountains before flowin through Chitral in Pakistan into the upper Kunar Valley in Afghanistan.
Haro River
Haro is the name of a river and its valley in the Abbottabad District, northern Pakistan, identified with the Rigvedic Arjikiya . It is fed by four major tributaries, the Lora Haro, rising in the Muree Hills around Lora, the Stora Haro, rising in the Nahiagali Hills, the Neelan, rising in the Nara Hills, the Kunhad, draining the area of Siribang and Dubran. Minor tributaries include rivulets of Jab, Hally' Desera and Najafpur.
Sohan River
The Sohan is a river of the Punjab, northern Pakistan, forming the northern border of the Bannu District (at ca. ). It has been identified with the Sushoma () of the Rigveda. The name "Sohan" derives from this river.
Panjkora River
The Panjkora River rises rises high in the Hindu Kush at lat. 35.45 and joins the Swat River near Chakdara, Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan.
Gujjar Nallah
Gujjar Nallah (Urdu: گجر نالہ ) is a stream in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It passes through the city from northwest to the center and merges with Lyari River before draining into the Arabian Sea.
5-2- Lakes
Lake SAIF-UL-MALUK:

Lake Saful Muluk in Kaghan Valley is one of the most romantic lakes on planet Earth.Heavenly. It is the only word that can describe the photogenic valley.Lake Saiful Muluk itself lies at the heart of the Kaghan Valley. Geologists beleive that the Kaghan section of the earth's crust, comming well within the area of Himalayan disturbance, has four different rock-formation zones, each exihibiting more placation as the higher and west-ward regions are approached




RAWAL Lake:
This glistening man-made lake covers an area of 8.8 sq. km. The terraced garden and the lake are ideal for picnic, fishing and boating. The highest point in the garden commands a panoramic view of the lake, Margallah and Murree hills, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The PTDC Jaltarang Restaurant offers snack bar facilities for visitors.
KHANPUR Lake:
This beautiful lake/dam is 48 km from Islamabad, on Taxila-Haripur Road. It is an ideal place for day trip/picnic, boating, angling and watching migratory birds during winter.
SIMLI Lake:
About 30 km from Islamabad lies Simli Lake and the Dam. It can be reached via Lehtrar road or via Bhara Kahu. It is fed by the melting snow and natural springs of Murree hills. The water stored in the lake is supplied to Islamabad for drinking purposes. Angling and boating is also allowed in the lake. The Capital Development Authority (CDA) has a Rest House at the Dam, which can be booked through its Head Office in Islamabad.
KALLAR KAHAR Lake:
The main attraction of the eastern Salt Range are the shrine of Saidan Shah at Choa Saidan Shah, the lake and shrine of Abdul Qadir Gilani at Kallar Kahar and the Hindu Temple Complex at Katas. Kallar Kahar is located about 135 km from Rawalpindi. The TDCP has built a six-room motel and restaurant overlooking Kallar Kahar (Salt Lake) with boating facilities. The Temple of Shiva at Katas (10th century AD) and other temples around Katas are valuable pieces of architecture and history.




RAMA Lake:
 Rama Lake one of the most picturesque spots, nine kilometers away from the beautiful valley of Astore in Northern Area is Rama Lake. Apart from being a beautiful destination, the Alpine Forest around it imparts a pleasant atmosphere. The area has many Trekkers/Hikers routes and some of them are ideal for Jeep Safaris.
PTDC?s newly constructed Motel at Rama Lake is a welcome addition as an important tourist resort. By virtue of its peculiar location it can conveniently serve as a base camp for trekkers and mountaineers intending to scale the mighty heights of Nanga Parbat.
SATPARA Lake: 
Satpara Lake one of the largest fresh water lakes of the country. By and large, the lake offers ample opportunity for trout fishing, boating and rowing. PTDC?s newly built Motel and furnished is ideally located overlooking at Satpara lake. The Motel is 9 kilometers from Skardu, capital city of Baltistan and takes about 20 minutes by Jeep. Another one hour drive by jeep will take you upto an altitude of 16000 feet on to the second largest plateau of the world popularly known as Deosai Plain.
BAGSHAR Lake: 
Bagshar lake is an ideal tourist resort in the Samhani valley in Mirpur district. It is a 6 km long sheet of crystal clear water that soothes the senses of a traveller after a 60 km road journey from Gujrat via Bhimber on the old Mughal road to Kashmir. It was through this road that Mughal Emperors travelled to Kashmir.
HALIJI Lake:
Haliji Lake is the largest bird sanctuary near Karachi where every winter, thousand of migratory birds come from as far as Siberia. It is 82 kms. (54 miles) from Karachi and is a paradise for bird-watcher. Accommodation is available for overnight stay.




KACHURA Lake & RESORTS:
Places of interest in and around Skardu include Shigar, Kherpachuo Fort, Satpara and Kachura Lakes, famous for deep blue waters and brown trout making them an anglers delight. Visit to Deosai plains is an experience of a lifetime.
LAL SAHANRA PARK: 
Lal Sahanra National Park is 36 km east of Bahawalpur, an ideal place for recreation and research. A natural fresh water lake and thick green forest add beauty to the place.
MOHONDAD Lake:
A day's excursion to the charming Ushu and Gabral valleys can be conveniently arranged. Visit to Mohodand Lake is a lifetime experience.
NALTAR Lake:
Naltar is an alpine plateau serving as a winters Ski resort as well. Surrounded by five to six thousand meters high peaks, the place was once a home of wildlife. In the highlands, one may get a glimpse of Ibex, Markhor, Ram Chikor and Chikor etc. There lie some lovely lakes on the trek before crossing Naltar Pass at 4600m.16 KM from the Naltar Village(Near Gilgit) is Naltar Lake a crystal clear emerald green lake. This is an ideal place for camping. It is a famous tourist attraction in the area.




SHANDUR Lake (SHADUR PASS):
Shandur Pass 3740m, the Jeep track to the Shandur Pass heads south along the east bank of Laspur River, passing through the Harchin village. Shandur Pass, the highest POLO ground in the world and annual polo tournament is held between Chitral and Gilgit in the first or second week of July normally.
Phunder, is located at 2800m, the view down to the deep blue lake is magnificent with the Ghizer River meandering through the green and lightly cultivated flood plain that supports the settlement of Phunder. The lake is well stocked with trout fish. Overnight in camps.
HANNA Lake: 
Hanna Lake is located 10 km NE from the city, on the way to Urak Valley. which lies at the foot of highest peak Zarghon. The lake is one of the finest attraction for the people of Quetta who often come here for picnic with their families.
5-3- Dams
MISRIOT Dam:

Misriot dam is located 12 km south-west of Rawalpindi. This small dam has an artificial lake with boating and fishing facilities. Fishing permit may be obtained from fishing guard at Misriot. It has a pleasant landscape and walkways beyond the lake among eruptions of black rocks.
TANAZA Dam:
It is a small dam located at about 35 Km south-west of Rawalpindi on Dhamial Road. Ideal for a day trip, the lake has a quiet atmosphere.
TERBALA Dam:
The world's largest earth-filled dam on one of the world's most important rivers - the Indus - is 103 km from Rawalpindi. The dam was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. Over 15,000 Pakistani and 800 foreign workers and engineers worked during its construction. It is the biggest hydel power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity. Its reservoir is 97 km long with a depth of 137 meters while total area of the lake is 260 sq.km. Permits are required for visiting the Dam. Please contact Public Relations Officer (PRO), Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Tarbela (Tel: 051-568941-2). A No-Objection Certificate (NOC) from the Ministry of Interior (Shaheed-e-Millat Sectt.), Islamabad is also required for foreign visitors.




MANGLA Dam:
World's third largest earth-filled dam is only 115 km south-east of Rawalpindi. One has to turn left from Dina Town and the dam on river Jhelum is about 14 km to the east. The dam is 3,353 meters long and 116 meters high above the river bed. It is designed to store 5.88 MAF water and also used for power generation. In the centre of the dam there is a Gakkhar Fort from where one can have a panoramic view of the lake. For permit to visit the dam, please contact PRO, WAPDA, Mangla. A NOC from the Ministry of Interior is required for foreigners only.
WARSAK Dam:
The gignatic multi-purpose Warsak Dam is situated 30 kms north-west of Peshawar in the heart of tribal territory. It has a total generating capacity of 240,000 kw and will eventually serve to irrigate 110,000 acres of land.
5-4- Coastline
The coastline of Pakistan extends 1,050 km (650 mi), 250 km falling in Sind province and 800 km in Balochistan. It borders the productive NE Arabian Sea famous for its upwelling phenomenon. Its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers an area of 196,600 sq.km. and the territorial waters cover an area of 24,000 km2. The continental shelf of the Sindh coast extends to a distance of 150 km whereas that of Balochistan only measures 15-40 km. The prevailing ocean current direction is clockwise during the southwest monsoon season and anti-clockwise during the northeast monsoon season. The salinity value is generally 36 ppt. Tides are neither very high nor very low, but intermediate; the mean average height is about 10-11 feet. Tides are higher on the eastern side and their velocity is generally between 1-2 knots but may increase to 4 knots in narrow creeks.
The Makran Coast Range forms a narrow strip of mountains along about 75 percent of the total coast length, or about 800 km (500 mi). These steep mountains rise to an elevation of up to 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Most of the coast is underdeveloped, with deserted beaches and only a few fishing villages.
The coast is rugged and tectonic in origin as evidenced by the uplifted terraces, headlands and fluted beds. The mud volcanoes present along the shores further support this. The coastline is mostly bare desert with unique landforms such as sandy beaches, mud flats, rocky cliffs, headlands, bays, deltas, etc. Brief descriptions of these are given in the following section.
Habitat Types along Pakistan's Coastline:
5-4-1- Beaches

Sandy beaches are common along Balochistan's shores but rare in Sindh. Well-known beaches in Pakistan include Somniani, Hingol River, Ormara, Pasni, and Gawadar in Balochistan, and Clifton and Hawks Bay in Sindh.
5-4-2- Cliffs and Headlands
Rocky shores and cliffs are prevalent in Balochistan. They are generally composed of conglomerates of soft mudstone and sandstone, which are highly susceptible to erosion. Headlands are prominent in Jiwani, Pisukan, Gawadar Rasjaddi and Ormara, and are intervened by low-lying places comprised of alluvial deposits. Irregular cliffs present at Ras Malan are a result of tectonic activity. Several deep-seated faults are also evident. The Sindh coast on the other hand, is very poor in rocky shores. Buleji, Manora Rocky Ledge, Cape Monze, and a few other small sites are present in the extreme western part of the province. The steep cliffs at Cape Monze are a trajectory of Mor and Kirthar Ranges, and are composed of hard limestone.
5-4-3- Bays and lagoons
Bays and lagoons are protected bodies of water surrounded by land having an opening into the sea. In bays, the opening is wide, whereas in lagoons it is very narrow. There are no bays or lagoons along the Sindh coast, but several along the Balochistan coast, such as Gawadar Bay, Ormara Bay and Somniani Bay. Sandy coasts in a curvilinear pattern fringe the first three mentioned bays, which are slowly being destroyed by erosion. There are only two lagoons in the country, both of which are also located in Balochistan. These are the lagoons of Kalmat Khor and Miani Hor, which harbor dense mangrove vegetation on the insides.
5-4-4- Mud Flats
Mud flats are gently sloping, unconsolidated inter-tidal parts of estuaries, and are always occupied by marsh vegetation. Tidal flats are the same except that they lack vegetation. The entire Indus Delta and most of the Sindh coast is comprised of mud flats with mangrove vegetation. Mud flats are nonexistent in Balochistan except in Gawadar Bay, Kalmat Khor and Miani Hor lagoons.
5-4-5- Mud Volcanoes
Mud volcanoes are conical hills or mountains with a crater on top through which they gently emit liquid, mud and gas. They are commonly associated with petroleum deposits, hence their presence indicates high petroleum potential along the Makran coast. Mud volcanoes generally emit muddy and saline water, but occasionally large masses of rock are violently blown hundreds of feet into the air. The gases that are discharged include methane, ethane and traces of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Mud volcanoes are a common occurrence in Balochistan but are not found in Sindh.
5-4-6- Estuaries
Estuaries are coastal embankments that receive substantial freshwater runoff from land, and experience open tidal circulation with the ocean. In other words, estuaries are the mouths of rivers opening into the sea. There are three major estuaries in Pakistan, the largest one being the Indus estuary on the Sindh coast. The other two are the Hingol and Dasht estuaries both located in Balochistan.
5-4-7- Deltas
Deltas are an accumulation of sediments at the mouths of rivers where they empty into basins. Deltas consist of three major parts: the delta plain, delta front and prodelta. There are several small deltas at the mouths of seasonal rivers in Balochistan. However, one of the largest deltas in the world, the Indus Delta, is located at the mouth of the Indus River and covers almost the entire coast of Sindh. It forms a remarkably uniform landform with large extensive mud flats being intervened by narrow creeks, which are remnants of old, Indus tributaries. The western part of the delta between Phitti Creek and Karachi Harbor is now abandoned, although at one time the Indus River used to flow close to Karachi.



Map showing coastline of Pakistan