Climate  
 
 
Natural geography of Turkey

3- Climate




Although Turkey is situated in large Mediterranean geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate, diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence in particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, result in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.




The Aegean and Mediterranean coasts have cool, rainy winters and hot, moderately dry summers. Annual precipitation in those areas varies from 580 to 1,300 millimeters, depending on location. The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of rainfall. The eastern part of that receives 2,200 millimeters annually and is the only region of Turkey that receives rainfall throughout the year.


ANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATION OF TURKEY


Because of Turkey's geographical conditions, one can not speak about a general overall climate. In Istanbul and around the sea of Marmara the climate is moderate (winter 4 deg.C and summer 27 deg.C); in winter the temperature can drop below zero. In Western Anatolia, there is a mild Mediterranean climate with average temperatures of 9°C in winter and 29°C in summer. On the southern coast of Anatolia the similar climatic condition are observed. The climate of the Anatolian Plateau is a steppe climate. There is a great temperature difference between day and night. Rainfall is low but it usually in form of snow. The average temperature is 23°C in summer and -2°C in winter. The climate in the Black Sea area is wet, and humid (summer 23°C, winter 7°C). In Eastern Anatolia and South-Eastern Anatolia there is a long winter, and snow remains on the ground from November until the end of April (the average temperature in winter is -13°C and in summer 17°C).



LONG TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE OF TURKEY


Average Temperatures for Major Regions (IN CELSIUS)

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

ANTALYA (South)

10

11

13

16

20

25

28

28

25

20

15

12

IZMIR (West)

9

10

11

16

20

25

28

27

23

18

15

10

ISTANBUL (Northeast)

5

6

7

12

16

21

23

23

20

16

12

8

TRABZON (North)

6

6

7

11

15

20

22

22

19

15

12

9

ANKARA (Central)

0

1

5

11

16

20

23

23

18

13

8

2

ERZURUM (East)

-9

-7

-3

5

11

15

19

20

15

9

2

-5

DIYARBAKIR (Southeast)

2

2

8

14

19

26

31

31

25

17

10

4


The driest regions are the Karaman, Igdir and Sanliurfa, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. The wettest regions are the Black Sea coastal region where annual rainfall can reach 2,200 millimeters annually, and the region receives rainfall throughout the year.


 

Average Temp

High Temp

Low Temp

Average Hum.

Average Rain

Marmara Region

13.5°C

56.3°F

44.6°C

112.3°F

-27.8°C

-18.0°F

71.2 %

564.3 mm 

 22.2 in

Aegean Region

15.4°C

59.7°F

48.5°C

119.3°F

-45.6°C

-50.1°F

60.9 %

706.0 mm 

 27.8 in

Mediterranian Region

16.4°C

61.5°F

45.6°C

114.1°F

-33.5°C

-28.3°F

63.9 %

706.0 mm 

 27.8 in

Black Sea Region

12.3°C

54.1°F

44.2°C

111.6°F

-32.8°C

-27.0°F

70.9 %

828.5 mm 

 32.6 in

Central Anatolia

10.6°C

51.1°F

41.8°C

107.2°F

-36.2°C

-33.2°F

62.6 %

392.0 mm 

 15.4 in

East Anatolia

9.7°C

49.5°F

44.4°C

111.9°F

-45.6°C

-50.1°F

60.9 %

569.0 mm 

 22.4 in

Southeast Anatolia

16.5°C

61.7°F

48.4°C

119.1°F

-24.3°C

-11.7°F

53.4 %

584.5 mm 

 23.0 in